What Effect Do Different Training Environments Have on Femoral Bone Density in Premenopausal Women?

Document Type: Original research papers

Authors

1 Faculty of Physical Education and sport sciences, Arak University, Arak, Iran

2 Department of Sport Biomechanics and Injuries, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Considering that maintaining the optimal level of bone mineral density during premenopausal period is important in reducing the risk of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures during postmenopausal period, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different training environments on femoral bone density in premenopausal women. In this quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design, 40 premenopausal women aged between 40 to 45 years were divided in four groups, 10 people in each group (exercise group in water, land, combined and control). Exercise groups performed 12 weeks of exercise three times a week 70 minutes per session. The subjects’ femoral bone density was measured before and after 12 weeks by DEXA bone density measurement device. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and LSD post hoc test at a significance level of P≤0.05, using SPSS software version 24. Femoral bone density showed a significant increase in the combined exercise group (P <0.05) but in the control group a decrease in bone density was observed (P <0.05). Total bone density of hip and femoral neck showed statistical differences in water exercise group, land exercise group and combined exercise group in comparison with control group (P <0.05). Given this there was no difference between the exercise groups in water and land environment, exercise in any environment is recommended for premenopausal women. Because weight training exercises in all three types of training environments prevent the progression of bone mineral density in premenopausal ages.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1.         Organization WH. Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: report of a WHO study group [‎‎‎ meeting held in Rome from 22 to 25 June 1992]‎‎‎: World Health Organization; 1994.

2.         O’Brien M. Exercise and osteoporosis. Irish journal of medical science. 2001;170(1):58-62.

3.         Vondracek SF, Hansen LB, McDermott MT. Osteoporosis risk in premenopausal women. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2009;29(3):305-17.

4.         Wolff I, Van Croonenborg J, Kemper H, Kostense P, Twisk J. The effect of exercise training programs on bone mass: a meta-analysis of published controlled trials in pre-and postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis international. 1999;9(1):1-12.

5.         Shepherd AJ. An overview of osteoporosis. Alternative therapies in health and medicine. 2004;10(2):26.

6.         Larijani B, editor An overview of osteoporosis in Iran. 1st International Osteoporosis Seminar in Iran Teheran, Iran. 2004.

7.         Larijani B, Tehrani MM, Hamidi Z, Soltani A, Pajouhi M. Osteoporosis, global and Iranian aspects. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2007;33(Supple 1):1-17.

8.         Jafarnezhadgero A, Majlesi M, Etemadi H, Hilfiker R, Knarr B, Shad MM. Effect of 16-week corrective training program on three dimensional joint moments of the dominant and non-dominant lower limbs during gait in children with genu varus deformity. Science & Sports. 2020;35(1):44. e1-. e11.

9.         Madadi-Shad M, Jafarnezhadgero AA, Sheikhalizade H, Dionisio VC. Effect of a corrective exercise program on gait kinetics and muscle activities in older adults with both low back pain and pronated feet: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Gait & Posture. 2020;76:339-45.

10.       Bagheri S, Letafatkar A. The Effect of a Water-Based Training Program on Pain, Range of Motion and Joint Position Sense in Elite Female Swimmers with Impingement Syndrome. Journal of Advanced Sport Technology. 2020:72-81.

11.       Farhan V, Abbasi A, Ghomshe FT, Tazaji MK, Gero AAJ. Effect of Combined Trainings (Rom improvement, Muscle Strengthening, Balance Training, and Gait Training) on Balance and Risk for Falling in Older Women with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. 2019.

12.       Caputo EL, Costa MZ. Influence of physical activity on quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition). 2014;54(6):467-73.

13.       Chahal J, Lee R, Luo J. Loading dose of physical activity is related to muscle strength and bone density in middle-aged women. Bone. 2014;67:41-5.

14.       Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Kohrt WM. Exercise and bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. International journal of endocrinology. 2013;2013.

15.       Habibzadeh S, Rahmaninia F, Daneshmandi H. Effect of walking program on bone mass density, body composition and some of blood factors in obese and thin girls. Kowsar Med J. 2010;15(1):55-9.

16.       Nichols JF, Nelson KP, Peterson KK, Sartoris DJ. Bone mineral density responses to high-intensity strength training in active older women. Journal of aging and physical activity. 1995;3(1):26-38.

17.       Bassey E, Ramsdale, S., . Weight-bearing exercise and ground reaction forces: a 12-month randomized controlled trial of effects on bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women. . Bone. 1995;16(4):469-76.

18.       Lau E, Woo J, Leung P, Swaminathan R, Leung D. The effects of calcium supplementation and exercise on bone density in elderly Chinese women. Osteoporosis International. 1992;2(4):168-73.

19.       Kemmler W, Engelke K, Weineck J, Hensen J, Kalender WA. The Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study: a controlled exercise trial in early postmenopausal women with low bone density—first-year results. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2003;84(5):673-82.

20.       Yamazaki S, Ichimura S, Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Toyama Y. Effect of walking exercise on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteopenia/osteoporosis. Journal of bone and mineral metabolism. 2004;22(5):500-8.

21.       Maimoun L, Manetta J, Couret I, Dupuy A, Mariano-Goulart D, Micallef J, et al. The intensity level of physical exercise and the bone metabolism response. International journal of sports medicine. 2006;27(02):105-11.

22.       Littrell TR, Snow CM, editors. Bone density and physical function in postmenopausal women after a 12-month water exercise intervention. Abstract conference of Med Sci Sports Exerc; 2004.

23.       Lund H, Weile U, Christensen R, Rostock B, Downey A, Bartels EM, et al. A randomized controlled trial of aquatic and land-based exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Journal of rehabilitation medicine. 2008;40(2):137-44.

24.       Kun Z, Greenfield, H., Xueqin, D., Fraser, DR., . Improvement of bone health in childhood and adolescence. . Nutrition research reviews. 2001; 14(1):119-52.

25.       Bravo G, Gauthier P, Roy PM, Payette H, Gaulin P, Harvey M, et al. Impact of a 12‐month exercise program on the physical and psychological health of osteopenic women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1996;44(7):756-62.

26.       Ghasemi S, Sadeghi H, Basiri Z, Tahamoli Roudsari A. Effect of exercises in water on bone density in premenopausal women. Pajouhan Scientific Journal. 2017;15(2):40-5.

27.       Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang A-G, Buchner A. G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior research methods. 2007;39(2):175-91.

28.       Goldstein E, Simkin, A., . The influence of weight-bearing water exercises on bone density of post-menopausal women/(menopausal age). JSTOR. 1994;4: 7-30.

29.       Mulhim A, Gazzar S, Bahnassy A, Ali M. Effect of exercise program on the Bone Mineral Density in Sedentary Females. Bahrain Medical Bulletin. 2004;26(2):1-5.

30.       Simas V, Hing W, Pope R, Climstein M. Effects of water-based exercise on bone health of middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open access journal of sports medicine. 2017;8:39.

31.       Chien M, Wu, YT., Hsu, AT., Yang, RS., Lai, JS., . Efficacy of a 24-week aerobic exercise program for osteopenic postmenopausal women. . Calcified tissue international 2000;1(67(6)):443-8.

32.       Mousavian SS, Taghavi, M., . the effects of 12 sessions of Pilates exercise on bone loss in women (50 to 60 years). . The first National Conference on Advances in Physical Education and Sports Chabahar, International University 2015.

33.       Vanaky B, Sadeghi H, Ramezani N. The effect of 12 weekes weight bearing water training on the bone density of middle age sedentary women. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia. 2014;11(2):931-36.

34.       Tofoghi A, Hefzollesan M. Effect of 12-weeks selective aerobic and resistance water training on femoral and lumbar spine bone density in obese postmenopausal women. 2011.

35.       Mohamadi S. Effect of 8 weeks training in water and land on osteoporosis of middle ages women 50 to 75 years old of Dezfol. Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch. 2013.

36.       Smidt GL, Lin S, O'Dwyer KD, Blanpied PR. The effect of high-intensity trunk exercise on bone mineral density of postmenopausal women. Spine. 1992;17(3):280-5.