The Effect of Using Air Brace on the Ground Reaction Force Component in People with Ankle Sprain

Authors

1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, School of Literature and Humanities, University College of Omran-tosseeh, Hamedan, Iran.

2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, School of Literature and Humanities, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran. Email: yasin.hoseiny@gmail.com, Tel: +98 9183525103.

3 Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, University of Nahavand, Nahavand, iran.

Abstract

The components of the Ground reaction force are of clinical importance. The use of braces can be effective in reducing harmful factors. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of the using air braces on the variables of the ground reaction force in people with ankle sprain. Material and methods:10 female with ankle sprain complication participated in this study. Using a force plate (1000 Hz), the components of the ground reaction force were measured when walking in two conditions with and without braces. Then, the peak variables of the ground reaction forces, impulse, and loading rate were extracted. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to analyze the data (α=0.05). Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the two conditions in the synchronized reaction force in the direction of Fx1 (p = 0.03), Fx2 (p = 0.008) and Fy1 (p = 0.02), but in the other components there was no difference between the two conditions. Conclusion: The increase in horizontal ground reaction force as a result of the use of air braces indicates greater instability. Also, increasing the posterior reaction force of the ground due to the use of braces is one of the risk factors for knee injury. It seems that the use or non-use of this type of brace depends on future research.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Moisan, G., Descarreaux, M., & Cantin, V. Effects of chronic ankle instability on kinetics, kinematics and muscle activity during walking and running: a systematic review. Gait & Posture, 2016; 52(1):381-399.‏
Guillodo, Y., Le Goff, A., & Saraux, A. Adherence and effectiveness of rehabilitation in acute ankle sprain. Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine, 2011; 54(4), 225-235.‏
Ha, S. C. W., Fong, D. T. P., & Chan, K. M. Review of ankle inversion sprain simulators in the biomechanics laboratory. Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology, 2015; 2(4):114-121.‏
Mailuhu, A. K., Oei, E. H., van Putte-Katier, N., van Ochten, J. Clinical and radiological predictors for persistent complaints five years after a lateral ankle sprain: a long-term follow-up study in primary care, J. Sci. Med. Sport, 2018; 21(3): 250–256.
Cao, S., Wang, C., Zhang, G., Ma, X., Wang, X., Huang, J& Wang, K. Effects of an ankle brace on the in vivo kinematics of patients with chronic ankle instability during walking on an inversion platform. Gait & posture, 2019; 72(1): 228-233.‏
Gehring, D., Wissler, S., Lohrer, H., Nauck, T., & Gollhofer, A. Expecting ankle tilts and wearing an ankle brace influence joint control in an imitated ankle sprain mechanism during walking. Gait & posture, 2014; 39(3): 894-898.‏
Barlow, G., Donovan, L., Hart, J. M., & Hertel, J. Effect of lace-up ankle braces on electromyography measures during walking in adults with chronic ankle instability. Physical Therapy in Sport, 2015; 16(1): 16-21.‏
Webster, C. A., Nussbaum, M. A., & Madigan, M. L. Stiffness and proprioceptive contributions of ankle braces and the influence of localized muscle fatigue. J.Electromyogr. Kinesiol, 2017; 34(1): 37–43.
Zhang, S., Wortley, M., Chen, Q., & Freedman, J. Efficacy of an ankle brace with a subtalar locking system in inversion control in dynamic movements. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, 2009; 39(12): 875-883.‏
R einschmidt, C., Van Den Bogert, A. J., Lundberg, A., Nigg, B. M., Murphy, N., Stacoff, A., & Stano, A. Tibiofemoral and tibiocalcaneal motion during walking: external vs. skeletal markers. Gait & Posture, 1997; 6(2): 98-109.‏
C hoisne, J., Hoch, M. C., Bawab, S., Alexander, I., & Ringleb, S. I. The effects of a semi‐rigid ankle brace on a simulated isolated subtalar joint instability. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 2013; 31(12), 1869-1875.‏
Gehring, D., Wissler, S., Lohrer, H., Nauck, T., & Gollhofer, A. Expecting ankle tilts and wearing an ankle brace influence joint control in an imitated ankle sprain mechanism during walking. Gait & posture, 2014; 39(3): 894-898.‏
Feger, M. A., Donovan, L., Hart, J. M., & Hertel, J. Effect of ankle braces on lower extremity muscle activation during functional exercises in participants with chronic ankle instability. International journal of sports physical therapy, 2014; 9(4): 476.‏
DiStefano, L. J., Padua, D. A., Brown, C. N., & Guskiewicz, K. M.. Lower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces after prophylactic lace-up ankle bracing. Journal of athletic training, 2008; 43(3), 234-241.
‏Zadpoor, A. A., & Nikooyan, A. A. The relationship between lower-extremity stress fractures and the ground reaction force: a systematic review. Clinical Biomechanics, 2011; 26(1): 23-28.‏
Crowell, H. P., & Davis, I. S. Gait retraining to reduce lower extremity loading in runners. Clinical biomechanics, 2011; 26(1): 78-83.‏
McClay Davis, I. S., Bowser, B. J., & Hamill, J. D.Vertical impact loading in runners with a history of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2010; 42(5): 682.
Cordova ML, Takahashi Y, Kress GM, Brucker JB, Finch AE. Influence of external ankle support on lower extremity joint mechanics during drop landings. J Sport Rehabil, 2010; 19(2):136-48.
Damavandi, M., Dixon, P. C., & Pearsall, D. J. Ground reaction force adaptations during cross-slope walking and running. Human movement science, 2012; 31(1), 182-189.‏
Robertson, G. E., Caldwell, G. E., Hamill, J., Kamen, G., & Whittlesey, S Research methods in biomechanics, 2E. Human Kinetics, 2013.
Frederick, E. C., & Hagy, J. L. Factors affecting peak vertical ground reaction forces in running. International journal of sport biomechanics, 1986; 2(1): 41-49.‏
Brown, C., Padua, D., Marshall, S. W., & Guskiewicz, K. Individuals with mechanical ankle instability exhibit different motion patterns than those with functional ankle instability and ankle sprain copers. Clinical biomechanics, 2008; 23(6): 822-831.‏
John, C. T., Seth, A., Schwartz, M. H., & Delp, S. L. Contributions of muscles to mediolateral ground reaction force over a range of walking speeds. Journal of biomechanics, 2012; 45(14): 2438-2443.‏
Hong, Y., & Li, J. X. Influence of load and carrying methods on gait phase and ground reactions in children’s stair walking. Gait & posture, 2005; 22(1): 63-68.‏
Feagin, J. A., & Steadman, J. R. The crucial principles in care of the knee. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008.‏
Farahpour, N., Jafarnezhad, A., Damavandi, M., Bakhtiari, A., & Allard, P. Gait ground reaction force characteristics of low back pain patients with pronated foot and able-bodied individuals with and without foot pronation. Journal of biomechanics, 2016; 49(9): 1705-1710.‏
Jafarnezhadgero, A. A., Majlesi, M., & Azadian, E. Gait ground reaction force characteristics in deaf and hearing children. Gait & posture, 2017; 53: 236-240.‏
Jafarnezhadgero, A., Madadi-Shad, M., Alavi-Mehr, S. M., & Granacher, U. The long-term use of foot orthoses affects walking kinematics and kinetics of children with flexible flat feet: A randomized controlled trial. PloS one, 2018; 13(10): e0205187.
Jafarnezhadgero, A., Alavi-Mehr, S. M., & Granacher, U.  Effects of anti-pronation shoes on lower limb kinematics and kinetics in female runners with pronated feet: The role of physical fatigue. PloS one, 2018; 14(5): e0216818.
Madadi-Shad, M., Jafarnezhadgero, A., Zago, M., & Granacher, U. Effects of varus knee alignment on gait biomechanics and lower limb muscle activity in boys: A cross sectional study. Gait & posture, 2019; 72: 69-75.
Jafarnezhadgero, A., Madadi-Shad, M., McCrum, C., & Karamanidis, K. Effects of corrective training on drop landing ground reaction force characteristics and lower limb kinematics in older adults with genu valgus: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of aging and physical activity, 2019; 27(1), 9-17.
Jafarnezhadgero, A., Fatollahi, A., Amirzadeh, N., Siahkouhian, M., & Granacher, U. Ground reaction forces and muscle activity while walking on sand versus stable ground in individuals with pronated feet compared with healthy controls. PloS one, 2019; 14(9):
Jafarnezhadgero, A. A., Anvari, M., & Granacher, U.  Long-term effects of shoe mileage on ground reaction forces and lower limb muscle activities during walking in individuals with genu varus. Clinical Biomechanics, 2020; 73: 55-62.
Jafarnezhadgero, A. A., Sorkhe, E., & Oliveira, A. S. Motion-control shoes help maintaining low loading rate levels during fatiguing running in pronated female runners. Gait & posture, 2019; 73, 65-70.
Madadi-Shad, M., Jafarnezhadgero, A. A., Sheikhalizade, H., & Dionisio, V. C. Effect of a corrective exercise program on gait kinetics and muscle activities in older adults with both low back pain and pronated feet: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Gait & Posture, 2020; 76: 339-345.