What Effect Do Different Training Environments Have on Femoral Bone Density in Premenopausal Women?

Document Type : Original research papers


1 Faculty of Physical Education and sport sciences, Arak University, Arak, Iran

2 Department of Sport Biomechanics and Injuries, Faculty of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


Considering that maintaining the optimal level of bone mineral density during premenopausal period is important in reducing the risk of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures during postmenopausal period, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different training environments on femoral bone density in premenopausal women. In this quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design, 40 premenopausal women aged between 40 to 45 years were divided in four groups, 10 people in each group (exercise group in water, land, combined and control). Exercise groups performed 12 weeks of exercise three times a week 70 minutes per session. The subjects’ femoral bone density was measured before and after 12 weeks by DEXA bone density measurement device. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and LSD post hoc test at a significance level of P≤0.05, using SPSS software version 24. Femoral bone density showed a significant increase in the combined exercise group (P <0.05) but in the control group a decrease in bone density was observed (P <0.05). Total bone density of hip and femoral neck showed statistical differences in water exercise group, land exercise group and combined exercise group in comparison with control group (P <0.05). Given this there was no difference between the exercise groups in water and land environment, exercise in any environment is recommended for premenopausal women. Because weight training exercises in all three types of training environments prevent the progression of bone mineral density in premenopausal ages.


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