Effect of Acute Functional Fatigue on Plantar Pressure Distribution and Foot Center of Pressure in Young Professional Volleyball Players

Document Type : Original research papers


1 Department of Sports Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Science, Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Sport Biomechanics, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran.

3 Department of Sports Biomechanics, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.


This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute functional fatigue on plantar pressure distribution and center of pressure (CoP)  in young professional male volleyball players. 38 young volleyball players voluntarily participated in this study and were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. A plantar pressure scanner measured plantar pressure distribution and CoP during standing and walking. The dependent samples t-test was used to investigate inter-group differences, and the covariance test was used to compare between groups. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 21) at a significance level of p≥0.05. The results showed that fatigue had a significant effect on the percentage of plantar pressure distribution in the fore-foot of both feet and the left rear-foot in both control and training groups (p<0.05). Also, the CoP path length and the ellipse area of the CoP after fatigue showed a significant change in the experimental group (p<0.05). The results showed that fatigue increases the contact surface and impulse of the forefoot and the CoP movements. These factors can increase the probability of injury in participants.


Main Subjects

  1. Hariri R, Bakhtiary A-H, Mirmohammadkhani M. The Immediate Effect of Kinesio Taping on the Balance Performance of Patients with Chronic Ankle Sprains: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Studies. 2021;8(3).
  2. Kassberg A-C, Nyman A, Larsson Lund M. Perceived occupational balance in people with stroke. Disability and rehabilitation. 2021;43(4):553-8.
  3. Pappas E, Sheikhzadeh A, Hagins M, Nordin M. The effect of gender and fatigue on the biomechanics of bilateral landings from a jump: Peak values. Journal of sports science & medicine. 2007;6(1):77.
  4. Schorderet C, Hilfiker R, Allet L. The role of the dominant leg while assessing balance performance. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Gait & posture. 2021;84:66-78.
  5. Zaheri RM, Majlesi M, Azadian E, Fatahi A. Kinematic and kinetic evaluation of jump-landing task in volleyball defense: implications for acl injury risk assessment. Kinesiologia Slovenica. 2022;28(1).
  6. Azevedo RdA, Silva-Cavalcante MD, Lima-Silva AE, Bertuzzi R. Fatigue development and perceived response during self-paced endurance exercise: state-of-the-art review. European journal of applied physiology. 2021;121(3):687-96.
  7. Jiang Y, Hernandez V, Venture G, Kulić D, K. Chen B. A data-driven approach to predict fatigue in exercise based on motion data from wearable sensors or force plate. Sensors. 2021;21(4):1499.
  8. Bukowska JM, Jekiełek M, Kruczkowski D, Ambroży T, Jaszczur-Nowicki J. Biomechanical Aspects of the foot arch, body balance and body weight composition of boys training football. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(9):5017.
  9. Gribble PA, Hertel J. Effect of lower-extremity muscle fatigue on postural control. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2004;85(4):589-92.
  10. Yaggie JA, McGregor SJ. Effects of isokinetic ankle fatigue on the maintenance of balance and postural limits. Archives of physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2002;83(2):224-8.
  11. Baroni BM, Wiest MJ, Generosi RA, Vaz MA, Leal Junior ECP. Effect of muscle fatigue on posture control in soccer Players during the short-pass movement. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano. 2011;13:348-53.
  12. Fitts RH. Muscle fatigue: the cellular aspects. The American journal of sports medicine. 1996;24(6_suppl):S9-S13.
  13. Bangsbo J. The physiology of soccer--with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta physiologica scandinavica Supplementum. 1994;619:1-155.
  14. Letafatkar K, Alizadeh M, Kordi M. The effect of exhausting exercise induced fatigue on the double-leg balance of elite male athletes. Journal of Social Sciences. 2009;5(4):445-51.
  15. Bove M, Faelli E, Tacchino A, Lofrano F, Cogo CE, Ruggeri P. Postural control after a strenuous treadmill exercise. Neuroscience letters. 2007;418(3):276-81.
  16. Bisson EJ, Remaud A, Boyas S, Lajoie Y, Bilodeau M. Effects of fatiguing isometric and isokinetic ankle exercises on postural control while standing on firm and compliant surfaces. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation. 2012;9(1):1-9.
  17. Grey T, Redguard D, Wengle R, Wegscheider P. Effect of plantar flexor muscle fatigue on postural control. Western Undergraduate Research Journal: Health and Natural Sciences. 2013;4(1).
  18. Shin Y, Youm C, Kim Y, editors. Effects of muscle fatigue on ankle and the fatigue protocols of postural control. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research; 2014: Springer.
  19. Gribble PA, Hertel J, Denegar CR, Buckley WE. The effects of fatigue and chronic ankle instability on dynamic postural control. Journal of athletic training. 2004;39(4):321.
  20. Zech A, Steib S, Hentschke C, Eckhardt H, Pfeifer K. Effects of localized and general fatigue on static and dynamic postural control in male team handball athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2012;26(4):1162-8.
  21. Pau M, Ibba G, Attene G. Fatigue-induced balance impairment in young soccer players. Journal of athletic training. 2014;49(4):454-61.
  22. Wikstrom EA, Powers ME, Tillman MD. Dynamic stabilization time after isokinetic and functional fatigue. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004;39(3):247.
  23. Craik R, Oatis CA. Gait analysis : theory and application. First edition. ed. xv, 471 pages p.
  24. Haddad J, Hamill J, Hong SL, Li L, Manor B. Gait and postural stability theory and clinical application. Monterey, CA: Healthy Learning,; 2009. Available from: https://login.proxy.bib.uottawa.ca/login?url=http://www.aspresolver.com/aspresolver.asp?SPEX;1831196.
  25. McNitt-Gray J, Hester D, Mathiyakom W, Munkasy B. Mechanical demand and multijoint control during landing depend on orientation of the body segments relative to the reaction force. Journal of biomechanics. 2001;34(11):1471-82.
  26. Verhagen E, Van der Beek AJ, Bouter LM, Bahr R, Van Mechelen W. A one season prospective cohort study of volleyball injuries. British journal of sports medicine. 2004;38(4):477-81.
  27. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang A-G, Buchner A. G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior research methods. 2007;39(2):175-91.
  28. Kartal A. Comparison of static balance in different athletes. The Anthropologist. 2014;18(3):811-5.
  29. Winter DA. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement: John Wiley & Sons; 2009.
  30. Farzami A, Sadeghi H, Fattahi A. The effect of fatigue caused by consecutive jump-landing on plantar pressure characteristics during stance phase of walking in adolescent volleyball players with and without sprain ankle injury. Studies in Sport Medicine. 2019;11(25):207-22.
  31. Salavati M, Moghadam M, Ebrahimi I, Arab AM. Changes in postural stability with fatigue of lower extremity frontal and sagittal plane movers. Gait & posture. 2007;26(2):214-8.
  32. Stolwijk NM, Duysens J, Louwerens J, Keijsers N. Plantar pressure changes after long-distance walking. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(12):2264-72.
  33. Naderi S, Naserpour H, Mohammadi-Pour F, Amir-Seyfaddini M. A Comparative Study on the Effects of Functional and Non-Functional Fatigue Protocols on Dynamic Balance of Amateur Basketball Players. Journal of Sport Biomechanics. 2019;5(3):168-77.
  34. Nagel A, Fernholz F, Kibele C, Rosenbaum D. Long distance running increases plantar pressures beneath the metatarsal heads: a barefoot walking investigation of 200 marathon runners. Gait & posture. 2008;27(1):152-5.
  35. Hamzavi B, Esmaeili H. Effects of running-induced fatigue on plantar pressure distribution in runners with different strike types. Gait & Posture. 2021;88:132-7.
  36. Haidary M. Effects of Proprioception Exercises in the Rehabilitation Process of Football Players after Arthroscopic Surgery Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). Journal of Sport Biomechanics. 2017;3(2):15-25.
  37. Taylor JL, Butler JE, Gandevia S. Changes in muscle afferents, motoneurons and motor drive during muscle fatigue. European journal of applied physiology. 2000;83(2):106-15.
  38. Farahpour, N., Jafarnezhadgero, A., Allard, P., & Majlesi, M. Muscle activity and kinetics of lower limbs during walking in pronated feet individuals with and without low back pain. Journal of Electromyography and inesiology. 2018; 39: 35-41.‏