The Comparison of Plantar Pressure Distribution and Frequency Content of Selected Muscles Between Hydrodynamic and Typical Sport Shoe.

Document Type : Original research papers


1 Department of Sports Sciences, Faculty of physical education and Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.

2 Physical Education Administration, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran



This study aimed to compare plantar pressure distribution and muscle frequency between hydrodynamic and typical sports shoes. Twelve healthy adult males participated in this experimental study. The hydrodynamic shoe features an outer sole with a pathway for fluid flow. The typical sports shoe with Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate soles was used for the comparison. Plantar pressure distribution was measured using the Pedar insole system, and the results were analyzed using Pedar-X software. Electrical muscle activity of the Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Palmaris longus, and tibialis anterior were measured using the Myon electromyography system at a 1000Hz sampling rate. Subjects were randomly assigned to wear either hydrodynamic or typical sports shoes and walked through the end of the pathway five times at a self-selected speed. The plantar area was divided into eight regions, and plantar pressure variables were calculated within these areas. The frequency variable includes mean and median frequency, as well as the 99.5th percentile frequency, representing 99.5% of the signal. Additionally, the bandwidth frequency was calculated. Paired t-test was used for statistical comparison (p<0.05). The results indicated considerable pressure reduction in the heel, forefoot, and toe (P<0.05). However, there is no difference in the time and frequency content of muscle activity between conditions. Based on the results, it seems that hydrodynamic shoes could have an important effect on the reduction of plantar pressure without any change in muscle activity during the gait.


Main Subjects

  1. Mueller, M.J., Application of plantar pressure assessment in footwear and insert design. Journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy. 1999; 29(12):747-755.
  2. Knowles, E. and A. Boulton, Do people with diabetes wear their prescribed footwear? Diabetic medicine. 1996; 13(12):1064-1068.
  3. Paton, J.S., et al., Patients’ Experience of therapeutic footwear whilst living at risk of neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Journal of foot and ankle research. 2014; 7(1):16-23.
  4. Waaijman, R., et al., Adherence to wearing prescription custom-made footwear in patients with diabetes at high risk for plantar foot ulceration. Diabetes care. 2013; 36(6):1613-1618.
  5. Baker, N. and B. Leatherdale, Audit of special shoes: are they being worn? Diabetic Foot. 1999; 2(1):100-104.
  6. Bongaerts, B.W., et al., older subjects with diabetes and prediabetes are frequently unaware of having distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy: the KORA F4 study. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(5):1141-1146.
  7. Ludwig, O., J. Kelm, and M. Fröhlich, The influence of insoles with a peroneal pressure point on the electromyographic activity of tibialis anterior and peroneus longus during gait. Journal of foot and ankle research. 2016;9(1):33-39.
  8. Jafarnezhadgero, A.A., E. Sorkhe, and A.S. Oliveira, Motion-control shoes help maintaining low loading rate levels during fatiguing running in pronated female runners. Gait & posture. 2019;73(3):65-70.
  9. Jafarnezhadgero, A., S.M. Alavi-Mehr, and U. Granacher, Effects of anti-pronation shoes on lower limb kinematics and kinetics in female runners with pronated feet: The role of physical fatigue. PloS one. 2019; 14(5). 23-29.
  10. Altayyar SS. The impact of custom-made insoles on the plantar pressure of diabetic foot. Majmaah Journal of Health Sciences. 2016;4(1):25–32
  11. Tsung BY, Zhang M, Mak AF, et al. Effectiveness of insoles on plantar pressure redistribution. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2004;41(6A):767–774.
  12. Winter, D.A., Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. 2009: John Wiley & Sons.
  13. Perry, J. and J.R. Davids, Gait analysis: normal and pathological function. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1992; 12(6): 815-823.
  14. Burgess, K. and P. Swinton, Do Fitflops™ increase lower limb muscle activity? Clinical Biomechanics. 2012;27(10):1078-1082.
  15. Gefen, A., et al., Analysis of muscular fatigue and foot stability during high-heeled gait. Gait & posture. 2002.15(1):56-63.
  16. Wakeling, J.M. and A.-M. Liphardt, Task-specific recruitment of motor units for vibration damping. Journal of biomechanics. 2006, 39(7):1342-1346.
  17. Choi, J., et al. Biomechanical analysis on custom-made insoles in gait of idiopathic pes cavus. in Journal of foot and ankle research. 2014: BioMed Central.
  18. Moisan, G. and V. Cantin, Effects of two types of foot orthoses on lower limb muscle activity before and after a one-month period of wear. Gait & posture. 2016; 46:75-80.
  19. Hermens HJ, Freriks B, Merletti R, Stegeman D, Blok J, Rau G, Disselhorst-Klug C, Hägg G. European recommendations for surface electromyography. Roessingh research and development. 1999;8(2):13-54.
  20. Farjad-Pezeshk A, Sadeghi H, Farzadi M. Comparison of Plantar Pressure Distribution and Vertical Ground Reaction Force between Dominant and None-Dominant Limb in Healthy Subjects Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Technique. jrehab. 2013;14 (1) :91-102
  21. Wurdeman, S. R., Huisinga, J. M., Filipi, M., & Stergiou, N. Multiple sclerosis affects the frequency content in the vertical ground reaction forces during walking. Clinical Biomechanics. 2011; 26(2), 207-2012.
  22. Birke JA, Foto JG, Deepak S, et al. Measurement of pressure walking in footwear used in leprosy. Lepr Rev. 1994;65(3):262–271. 33.
  23. Rose NE, Feiwell LA, Cracchiolo A. A method of measuring foot pressures using a high resolution, computerized insole sensor: the effect of heel wedges on plantar pressure distribution and center of force. Foot & Ankle. 1992;13(5):263–270.
  24. Farjad Pezeshk SA, Shariatzadeh M, Gholamian S, Yousefi M, Fathei M. Comparison of Plantar Pressure Distribution and Selected Muscles Activity of the Lower Limb between Viscous and Common Foam Shoes. The Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2020; 9(4):173-82.
  25. San Tsung BY, Zhang M, Mak AF, Wong MW. Effectiveness of insoles on plantar pressure redistribution. Journal of rehabilitation research and development. 2004;41(6A):767-772.
  26. Aminian G, Safaeepour Z, Farhoodi M, Pezeshk AF, Saeedi H, Majddoleslam B. The effect of prefabricated and proprioceptive foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution in patients with flexible flatfoot during walking. Prosthetics and orthotics international. 2013;37(3):227-32.
  27. Kim J, Lee J, Lee G, Chang WH, Ko MH, Yoo WK, Ryu GH, Kim YH. Relationship between lower limb muscle activity and cortical activation among elderly people during walking: Effects of fast speed and cognitive dual task. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2022;4(9):14-19.
  28. Péter A, Arndt A, Hegyi A, Finni T, Andersson E, Alkjær T, Tarassova O, Rönquist G, Cronin N. Effect of footwear on intramuscular EMG activity of plantar flexor muscles in walking. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2020;55(2):10-17.
  29. Farjad Pezeshk SA, Shariat Zadeh M, Ilbeigi S, Yousefi M. Comparison of Muscle Activity and Timing between a Custom Shoe with Hydrodynamic Mechanism and Regular Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Shoe. Journal of Advanced Sport Technology. 2019;3(2):129-45.
  30. Nazari F, Mohammadipour F, Amiri-Khorasani M. Comparison of Oxygen and Energy Consumption between Running with Researcher-Made Beach Simulator Shoes and Sports Shoes with PU Soles. Journal of Advanced Sport Technology. 2023;7(2):46-55.