The Effect of 8-Weeks of Combined Exercise with Consuming Methadone on Liver Enzymes Levels in Withdrawal Addiction Females

Document Type : Original research papers


Due to the increase in the rate of addiction among women; and the importance of the role of parenting and managing for women at home, the importance of health is felt in this stratum by the community and one of the most affecting factors on health is regular exercise. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the 8-weeks combined exercise with methadone on liver enzymes (including: ALT, AST, ALP) in withdrawal addiction females. This semi-experimental study was done at Zahedan addiction Camp on 43 available addicted women divided two groups of methadone (N: 20) and methadone with exercise (N: 23), randomly by the same variables such as age, type and duration of drug withdrawal and body mass index. Levels of liver enzymes were assessed by blood sampling before and after 8-weeks. To compares the means between two groups on the same continuous, independent t-test and to compare two means were from same group (pre test vs. post test) paired t-test via SPSS software version 24 were used. Statistical significant level P was taken to be less than 0.05 (P<0.05). Results showed that the levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) in both groups decreased; which one except ALP in methadone with combined exercise group (T=-1.701, P=0.117) all of them were significant (P<0.05). Also, independent t-test showed no significant difference between post-test’s levels of AST, ALT, ALP enzymes between methods (P>0.05). This was a good pilot study upon which it might want to use a more robust study by the bigger sample size to detect more and various findings and from the new technological aspects it suggests that combination exercise (aerobic + strength training) could be a new useful way to use with consuming methadone at withdrawal addiction females probably, too.


Main Subjects

1.         Arazi H, Asgari B. Keyword: addicted, non-addicted, personality characteristics, problem solving styles Prevalence of Narcotic Drugs Use among Physical Education and Non-Physical Education Female Students. research on addiction. 2011;5(19):57-70.
2.         Mogharnasi M, Koushan M, Golestaneh F, Seyedahmadi M, Keavanlou F. The effect of aerobic training on the mental health of addict women. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences. 2011;18(2):91-7.
3.         Le Moal M, Koob GF. Drug addiction: pathways to the disease and pathophysiological perspectives. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;17(6-7):377-93.
4.         Halim S, Mohamad N, Bakar NHA, Husain R, Mat KC, Omar SHS, et al. Effects of zamzam water and methadone on the expression of Mu-Opioid Receptor-1 gene in morphine-dependent rats after chronic morphine administration. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2018;15(2):19-25.
5.         Rahimi-Movaghar A, Khastoo G, Moinolghorabaei M, Yunesian M, Sadeghi A-R. Use of stimulant substances among university students in Tehran: a qualitative study. Iranian journal of psychiatry and behavioral Sciences. 2011;5(2):32.
6.         Volaklis K, Halle M, Koenig W, Oberhoffer R, Grill E, Peters A, et al. Association between muscular strength and inflammatory markers among elderly persons with cardiac disease: results from the KORA-Age study. Clinical Research in Cardiology. 2015;104(11):982-9.
7.         Koob GF. Neurobiological substrates for the dark side of compulsivity in addiction. Neuropharmacology. 2,31-56: 18;009
8.         Hadadi FA, F, Vakili, J. Effect of eight weeks endurance training on liver enzymes in methadone addicts 2013.
9.         Shirani S, Shakiba M, Soleymanzadeh M, Esfandbod M. Can opium abuse be a risk factor for carotid stenosis in patients who are candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting? Cardiology journal. 2010;17(3):254-8.
10.       Aronson D, Sheikh-Ahmad M, Avizohar O, Kerner A, Sella R, Bartha P, et al. C-Reactive protein is inversely related to physical fitness in middle-aged subjects. Atherosclerosis. 2004;176(1):173-9.
11.       Sato S, Nakamura M, Iida M, Naito Y, Kitamura A, Okamura T, et al. Plasma fibrinogen and coronary heart disease in urban Japanese. American journal of epidemiology. 2000;152(5):420-3.
12.       Callaly T, Trauer T, Munro L, Whelan G. Prevalence of psychiatric disorder in a methadone maintenance population. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2001;35(5):601-5.
13.       Siahkouhian M, Mamashli E, Behbudi Z, Imani A. A New Mathematical Method for the Estimation of Aerobic Threshold in Sports Physiology. Journal of Advanced Sport Technology. 2018;2(2):28-34.
14.       Iranpour A, Gorbanian B, Bolboli L, Valizadehorang A, Azarian S. The Influence of Aqua Aerobic Exercise on Cardiac Autonomic Function and Blood Pressure in College Male Students. Journal of Advanced Sport Technology. 2020;4(1):37-51.
15.       Nouri R, Sheykh SB, Fathollahi SF. Effects of 8 weeks exercise trainings on changes in fibrinogen, CRP, leukocytes and cardiovascular fitness in men inactive after leaving drug. 2013.
16.       Alessi SM, Rash CJ, Pescatello LS. Reinforcing exercise to improve drug abuse treatment outcomes: A randomized controlled study in a substance use disorder outpatient treatment setting. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 2020;34(1):52.
17.       Sadeghi S. The effect of twelve weeks endurance training on liver enzymes levels in Iranian obese women. Scientific Journals Management System. 2017;15(13):49-60.
18.       Davoodi M. The effect of eight weeks selected aerobic exercise on liver parenchyma and liver enzymes (AST, ALT) of fat liver patients. Journal of Shahrekord Uuniversity of Medical Sciences. 2012;14.
19.       Miladi Gorji H, Rashidy-Pour A, Fathollahi Y, Semnanian S, Mohammad Akhavan M. Effects of voluntary exercise on severity of naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Koomesh. 2010:86-93.
20.       Bawor M, Dennis BB, Anglin R, Steiner M, Thabane L, Samaan Z. Sex differences in outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a systematic review protocol. Systematic reviews 45:(1)3;2014.
21.       Sargazi M, Taghian F. The Effect of Royal Jelly and Exercise on Liver Enzymes in Addicts. Archives of Pharmacy Practice. 2020;11(2).
22.       Hajighasem A, Farzanegi P, Mazaheri Z, Naghizadeh M, Salehi G. Effects of resveratrol, exercises and their combination on Farnesoid X receptor, Liver X receptor and Sirtuin 1 gene expression and apoptosis in the liver of elderly rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver. PeerJ. 2018;6:e5522.
23.       Limdi J, Hyde G. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests. Postgraduate medical journal. 2003;79(932):307-12.
24.       Barzegarzadeh-Zarandi H, Dabidy-Roshan V. Changes in some liver enzymes and blood lipid level following interval and continuous regular aerobic training in old rats. Journal of Shahrekord Uuniversity of Medical Sciences. 2012;14.
25.       Mirdar S, Nobahar, M., Safiry, H., Sadeghpour, B. . The effect of a week-long exhaustive exercise session on some liver enzymes in girls. Research in Sport Science. 2008;18(1).
26.       Eriksson-Berg M, Egberg N, Eksborg S, Schenck-Gustafsson K. Retained fibrinolytic response and no coagulation activation after acute physical exercise in middle-aged women with previous myocardial infarction. Thrombosis research. 2002;105(6):481-6.
27.       Bijeh N, Moazami M, Mansouri J, Saeedeh Nematpour F, Ejtehadi M. Effect of aerobic exercises on markers of bone metabolism in middle-aged women. Kowsar Medical Journal. 2011;16(2):129-35.
28.       Rostami H, Hematfar A, Samavati Sharif MA. Interactive Effects of Endurance Swimming and Curcumin Supplementation on Serum Levels of Liver Alkaline Phosphatase in Male Rats Following Ethanol Abuse. Journal of Advanced Sport Technology. 2020;4(1):29-36.
29.       Ozdemir E, Bagcivan I, Durmus N, Altun A, Gursoy S. The nitric oxide–cGMP signaling pathway plays a significant role in tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology. 2011;89(2):89-95.
30.       Capone F, Adriani W, Shumilina M, Izykenova G, Granstrem O, Dambinova S, et al. Autoantibodies against opioid or glutamate receptors are associated with changes in morphine reward and physical dependence in mice. Psychopharmacology. 2008;197(4):535-48.
31.       Dai W-L, Xiong F, Yan B, Cao Z-Y, Liu W-T, Liu J-H, et al. Blockade of neuronal dopamine D2 receptor attenuates morphine tolerance in mice spinal cord. Scientific Reports. 2016;6:38746.
32.       Noda Y, Nabeshima T. Opiate physical dependence and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. European journal of pharmacology. 2004;500(1-3):121-8.
33.       Walter C, Doehring A, Oertel BG, Lötsch J. µ-opioid receptor gene variant OPRM1 118 A> G: a summary of its molecular and clinical consequences for pain. Pharmacogenomics. 2013;14(15):1915-25.
34.       Mao J. Overview on opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia. 2010:1-8.
35.       Borcherding DC, Tong W, Hugo E, Barnard D, Fox S, LaSance K, et al. Expression and therapeutic targeting of dopamine receptor-1 (D1R) in breast cancer. Oncogene. 2016;35(24):3103-13.
36.       Francaux M, Deldicque L. Exercise and the control of muscle mass in human. Pflügers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology. 2019;471(3):397-411.
37.       Yang C, Chen Y, Tang L, Wang ZJ. Haloperidol disrupts opioid-antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2011;338(1):164-72.
38.       Mohammadi R, Fallah Mohammadi, Z., Aghajani, Kh., Taghavi Helegh, A. The Pre-Teetment effect of voluntary exercise by GDNF on lesion injectioned by 6-hydroxydopamine in brain stem of male rats. Physiology of sport and physical activity. 2015;13:1029-35.
39.       Zigmond MJ, Cameron JL, Leak RK, Mirnics K, Russell VA, Smeyne RJ, et al. Triggering endogenous neuroprotective processes through exercise in models of dopamine deficiency. Parkinsonism & related disorders. 2009;15:S42-S5.