Validity and Reliability of “Chaboki Afza” Researcher made Instrument

Document Type : Original research papers


1 Biomechanics and Sport Injuries Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Sport Biomechanics and Injuries, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran


Considering the need of most sports skills to perform fast actions, change of direction at an appropriate time, and necessity utilization of suitable agility tests for assessment, the purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the “Chaboki Afza” researcher-made device. In thisexperimental research, the model of the study was validation and reliability, and classified in applied research type. Following the design and construction of the agility booster device, for its validity and reliability, 10 young healthy volunteering to participate in this study. All tests were executed in the same conditions on both T and Illinois tests instruments and reference tests, by two examiners. To evaluate the validity of the researcher-made device, independent t-test was applied on the data recorded from the device-related test and the recorded data from the functional tests. Furthermore, to evaluate the reliability of instrument, the Inter-Intra Class Correlations (ICC) were used. Research results showed a significant correlation coefficient between the device test in all three replicates of the device and the Illinois field test (r = 0.66). While there was no significant correlation between T-test and the proposed instrument’s tests (r = 0.23). The achieved results confirmed acceptable reliability of tests (within the examiner for consecutive repetitions of 0.93, 0.72 and 0.69, respectively and between the examiners 0.96) for Inter-Intra Class Correlation in these research measurements. Due to the results, Chaboki Afzacan be recommended as an alternative or complementarydevice for evaluating agility field tests.


Main Subjects

1.    Lee, E.,Brown, Vance, A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. 3rd ed. Human Kinetics; 2005.
2.    Paul, Gamble. Training for Sports Speed and Agility- An Evidence-Based Approach. Routledge; 2011.
3.    Dawes J, Roozen M. Developing-agility-and-quickness. New York, New York, USA: Human Kinetics; 2012.
4.    JM S, WB Y. Agility literature review: classifications, training and testing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2006;24(9):919-932.
5.    Kainoa P, Kent M, John G, Michael I, Acourse A.. Reliability and Validity of the T-Test as a Measure of Agility, Leg Power, and Leg Speed in College-Aged Men and Women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2000;14(4):443–50.
6.    Spiteri T, Newton RU, Nimphius S. Neuromuscular strategies contributing to faster multidirectional agility performance. Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, 2015;25(4):629–36.
7.    Spasic M, Krolo A, Zenic N, Delextrat A, Sekulic D. Reactive agility performance in handball; development and evaluation of a sport-specific measurement protocol. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2015;14(3):501–6.
8.    Ashburn A, Kampshoff C, Burnett M, Stack E, Pickering RM, Verheyden G. Sequence and onset of whole-body coordination when turning in response to a visual trigger: Comparing people with Parkinson’s disease and healthy adults. Gait Posture, 2014;39(1):278–83.
9.    Patla AE, Adkin A, Ballard T. Online steering: coordination and control of body center of mass, head and body reorientation. Exp Brain Res. 1999; 3;129(4):0629–34.
10. Houck JR, Duncan A, Haven KED. Comparison of frontal plane trunk kinematics and hip and knee moments during anticipated and unanticipated walking and side step cutting tasks. Gait Posture, 2006;24(3):314–22.
11. Sasaki S, Nagano Y, Kaneko S, Sakurai T, Fukubayashi T. The relationship between performance and trunk movement during change of direction. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2011;10(1):112–8.
12. Marshall BM, Franklyn-Miller AD, King EA, Moran KA, Strike SC, Falvey ÉC. Biomechanical factors associated with time to complete a change of direction cutting maneuver. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2014; 1;28(10):2845–51.
13. Kim JH, Lee KK, Kong SJ, An KO, Jeong JH, Lee YS. Effect of anticipation on lower extremity biomechanics during side-and cross-cutting maneuvers in young soccer players. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 2014;42(8):1985–92.
14. El-Gohary M, Holmstrom L, Huisinga J, King E, McNames J, Horak F. Upper limb joint angle tracking with inertial sensors. In: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS. 2011; 5629–32.
15. McGinnis RS, Cain SM, Davidson SP, Vitali R V., McLean SG, Perkins NC. Inertial sensor and cluster analysis for discriminating agility run technique. IFAC-Papers.OnLine. 2015;28(20):423–8.
16. Hojka V, Stastny P, Rehak T, Gołas A, Mostowik A, Zawart M, et al. A systematic review of the main factors that determine agility in sport using structural equation modeling. Journal of Human Kinetics, 2016; 1; 52(1):115–23.
17. Young WB, Dawson B, Henry GJ. Agility and Change-of-Direction Speed are Independent Skills: Implications for Training for Agility in Invasion Sports. The International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 2015; 12;10(1):159–69.
18. Henry G, Dawson B, Lay B, Young W. Validity of a Reactive Agility Test for Australian Football. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2011; 6; 534–545.
19. Muniroglu S, Subak E., A Comparison of 5, 10, 30 Meters Sprint, Modified T-Test, Arrowhead and Illinois Agility Tests on Football Referees. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 2018; 13; 6(8):70–76.
20. Hachana Y, Chaabène H, Nabli MA, Attia A, Moualhi J, Farhat N, et al. Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of the Illinois agility test in male team sport athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2013;27(10):2752–9.
21. Raya MA, Gailey RS, Gaunaurd IA, Jayne DM, Campbell SM, Gagne E, et al. Comparison of three agility tests with male servicemembers: Edgren Side Step Test, T-Test, and Illinois Agility Test. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 2013;50(7):951–60.
22. Farrow D, Young W, Bruce L. The development of a test of reactive agility for netball: A new methodology. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2005;8(1):52–60.
23. Sekulic D, Krolo A, Spasic M, Uljevic O, Peric M. The Development of a New Stopʼn’go Reactive-Agility Test. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2014; 23;28(11):3306–12.
24. Hay J. The biomechanics of sports techniques. Prentice-Hall; 1978.
25. Tsitskaris G, Theoharopoulos A GA. Speed, speed dribble and agility of male basketball players playing in different positions. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 2003;45(1):21–30.
26. Sekulic D, Spasic M, Mirkov D, Cavar M, Sattler T. Gender-specific influences of balance, speed, and power on agility performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2013 Mar;27(3):802–11.
27. Markovic G, Sekulic D, Markovic M. Is agility related to strength qualities? - Analysis in latent space. Cell Antropol. 2007;31(3):787–93.
28. Yanci J, Arcos A, Mendiguchia J, Brughelli M. Relationships between sprinting, agility one- and two-leg vertical and horizontal jump in soccer players. Kinesiology. 2014;46(2):194–201.